The purpose of lubrication management is to prevent equipment lubrication failure, reduce the loss caused by equipment overheating shutdown, save maintenance costs and reduce the replacement of parts, prolong the service life of equipment, reduce lubricant consumption and save the cost of purchasing lubricating materials. Modern mechanical equipment is developing towards the direction of high precision, high efficiency, high speed, heavy load, small, maintenance free and energy saving, which puts forward higher requirements for the friction parts of mechanical equipment.
1. Fault phenomena and causes caused by lubrication
1. Poor mechanical operation
When the equipment is running, the motion is sluggish, the speed is uneven, and the power consumption is large, which will inevitably produce vibration and noise. Sometimes, the motor will overheat and fail to meet the design parameters. If the motor power is increased at this time, the machinery will overheat. Transmission components, such as bearings, belts, gears, etc., will be seriously damaged. Uploading
① Improper installation or design defects of friction parts, such as too small clearance of sliding bearing to increase friction, or conversely, too large clearance will cause poor impact and lubrication, resulting in increased friction and unstable movement, too large or too small clearance of friction parts, or insufficient supply of lubricating oil, which will lead to poor lubrication of parts and deterioration of operation state, etc. Some of the above conditions are caused by improper design, while others are caused by poor processing or assembly.
② When the material or combination of moving parts is improper and the lubricating oil is not selected properly, it will also cause unstable movement, and it is easy to cause biting and gluing damage.
③ Foreign matters mixed in. When abrasive solids such as dust and sand invade, they are easy to be embedded into the friction pair and hinder the movement. Often, the particles such as dust and sand are more than 0.2 ~ 0.8mm and have high hardness. They not only hinder the operation, but also cause significant friction.
④ The wear, sticking, peeling and other damages of mechanical equipment parts will worsen the motion state, and the lubrication is difficult to work.
2 vibration and noise
During the operation of mechanical equipment, abnormal vibration and noise will be generated due to various reasons, which will reduce the performance of machinery and make the environment unqualified. The reason is closely related to lubrication.
3. The temperature is too high
The resistance of friction pair increases and the temperature rises rapidly. Under the influence of no heat source, such as bearing, reducer, etc. High attention shall be paid when the external temperature exceeds 80 ℃. Their internal temperature is dozens of degrees higher than the external temperature or even charred.
① The friction resistance is too large, and the forced operation causes intense heating. For example, when the sealing device of water pump packing is pressed too tightly, it will cause serious resistance and heating.
② The viscosity of the lubricating oil is too high and the oil filling capacity is too much, which makes it stir too violently during operation, resulting in heating. It is also due to the high viscosity of the lubricating oil, poor fluidity, poor heat dissipation, etc.
③ Poor heat dissipation conditions, high ambient temperature and poor ventilation, and the heat cannot be dissipated in time.
④ Due to operation heating, improper gap adjustment, parts deformation and thermal expansion, it will also accelerate the heating of parts.
4. The machine cannot run
It is mainly manifested in abnormal mechanical conditions and bite and embrace of friction pairs.
The reasons are: the friction part is damaged, resulting in bite and embrace; Serious sand and foreign matters, resulting in jamming; When the temperature is too high, the state of the friction part deteriorates significantly and biting occurs.
2. Damage causes and solutions of equipment lubricating parts
When mechanical failure occurs, especially lubrication failure, obvious abnormal phenomena often occur. However, there are many subtle phenomena that are not easy to detect. Their existence is easy to cause major faults, which must be paid attention to.
This requires that when the equipment is in normal operation, the corresponding operators shall timely make various records, including noise, vibration, temperature, power consumption and other data, and regularly check the operation status of mechanical equipment, which is helpful to find minor faults, solve problems in time and avoid major losses.
What are the main equipment lubrication faults and how to solve them? The following summarizes the damage causes and solutions of lubricating parts of various mechanical equipment.
Damage causes and solutions of lubricating parts of 1 compressor
2. Damage causes and solutions of rolling bearing
3. Causes of sliding bearing damage and Solutions
4 sealing packing failure and Solutions
5 damage of lubricating parts of hydraulic oil pump and Its Solutions
3. Practical skills of equipment lubrication
(1) Rolling bearing. The lubricated rolling bearing shall: select the model; Install correctly, adjust the axial clearance, and the machining accuracy of the shaft meets the requirements; Select appropriate lubricating oil viscosity and keep the system and lubricating oil clean.
(2) Air compressor is a complex of various parts, so there are few special differences in its lubrication. Most of these lubrication faults are caused by low assembly accuracy, unskilled operation technology and maintenance technology, and a considerable part is caused by oil pollution and deterioration and insufficient oil supply.
(3) In order to make the sealing device work under long-term and stable conditions, an oil film must be formed on the contact friction surface to lubricate and seal. The oil film thickness is 1 μ m. Therefore, even slight damage and deformation on the sealing friction surface will also cause oil leakage. Care must be taken when using and installing the seal. O-ring, lip ring and oil seal are made of synthetic rubber. Once damaged and oil leakage will lead to mechanical and device damage, so carefully check the service conditions, such as oil property, pressure, temperature, etc.
(4) The oil pump is developing towards high pressure, high speed and large capacity, so the lubrication problem of the pump is also very important. It must have appropriate viscosity, good high wear resistance and anti bite viscosity for the hydraulic working oil. In addition, it is also very important for the anti pollution management of the working oil.
The purpose of lubrication management is to prevent equipment lubrication failure and reduce the loss caused by mechanical equipment shutdown; Improve production, save maintenance costs and reduce parts replacement frequency, prolong the service life of equipment and reduce lubricant consumption. Doing well in equipment lubrication is an important content of enterprise management and an important way for enterprises to improve economic benefits.
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